- BAUER Olivier - Que font trois concombres sur une Cène peinte par Carlo Crivelli en 1488 ?
What are three cucumbers doing on a Last Supper painted by Carlo Crivelli in 1488?
This article explains what cucumbers painted on a Venetian Last Supper could evoke at the end of the Middle Ages. After identifying their lexicographic, dietary, gastronomic, and symbolic values, examining the hypothesis that they would be the artist’s signature, the author concludes that cucumbers give a particular flavour to the work and therefore to the biblical episode that it illustrates and to the liturgical rite which it evokes.
- ANTIER Guilhen, ROHMER Céline - Autorité et interprétation de l’Écriture. Liminaire
- VOUGA François, GOUNELLE André - Thèses sur l’Écriture
- GOUNELLE André - « En matière de foi »
- VOUGA François - L’autorité de l’Écriture. Commentaires
Theses on Scripture
These theses were written by professors André Gounelle and François Vouga as part of a seminar that was attended by students in their fifth year of theology, and which theme was “the authority of Scripture”. The theses were explained and discussed in the session, and then partially revised to reflect these discussions. We have retained the schematic character (related to the literary genre of the thesis) and the technical vocabulary of this working document.
« In matter of faith »
The Reformation and, in its wake, Protestantism, affirm the decisive role of the Bible for Christian life. What precisely is its function and how is it decisive? This article lists the three answers (which can be dissociated or combined) that have been given to this question: the first focuses on the doctrinal teaching of Scripture; the second emphasizes its existential significance; the third emphasizes its eschatological openness.
The authority of the Scripture. Commentaries
The author proposes to refine, with hindsight, the use of the two terms of authority and Scripture. Noting first of all that authority does not exist until it is recognized, he stresses that it is the reading and the companionship with Scripture that confers on it its authority. He highlights that this recognition of the authority of Scripture is linked to a pact of imagination or a pact of fiction recognizing authority to the events witnessed or displayed by the literary art of its writings. A second part starts from the use that the Gospels and Epistles make of the term Scripture. The Scripture receives its meaning, its unity and its coherence from external keys of reading and it is the constitution of the different canons that gives a universal value of Scripture to the personal creation of poetic works, artistic or literary, such as gospels or epistles.
Position de thèse
- SCHÄFER Christina - La possession dans l’Évangile de Marc comme narration créative du péché chez Paul
- NICOL Charles - Les protestants à Nantes et Saint-Nazaire au XIXe siècle : leur action au service du développement urbain et portuaire
Possession in the Gospel of Mark as a creative narrative of sin in Paul
The thesis shows that Mark’s Gospel offers a narrative of Pauline anthropology. The figures of demonic possession continue Paul’s analysis of alienation with the concept of sin. Paul deciphers the wretched conflict of the human subject with his own finitude: rather than recognising the grace of the transcendence that gives him life, he imprisons himself in the desperate attempt to imagine himself as a transcendent origin. Mark’s gospel then stages the way for a liberation from the ensuing addictive situation through an original transformation of the understanding of demonic possession.
The Protestants in Nantes and Saint-Nazaire during the 19th Century: their role in the service of urban and port development
Nantes was the main French port until the middle of the 18th century. The decree which abolished slavery, along with the independence of Santo Domingo, the continental blockade, and the end of the triangular trade caused the breakdown of the port traffic in the early 19th century. At the same time, the development of the French colonial empire and the industrial revolution led to the transformation of the commercial port into an industrial production port. A generation of Protestant businesspersons then turned to new commercial and metallurgical activities. Like in most major European ports, Protestants were very active in business at that time. They were ship-owners, traders or even manufacturers, but they were also workers and employees. The ties dated from far back since they were present in the port from the 16th century before being chased out when the Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685. And it is through foreign workers from Switzerland and from Northern Europe that Protestantism was born again in Nantes when the Reformed cult was formalized in 1803. Further downstream on the Loire, Saint-Nazaire, the new town competed considerably with the activity of the port of Nantes. Many members of the various divisions within the port business, particularly, those in charge of management on the quays, others inside the Town Hall or members of the Chamber of Commerce, all belonged to the Protestant confession. This study analyzes how this minority, by its ability to invest, contributed decisively to the transformation of the Nantes/Saint-Nazaire urbano-port area in the 19th century.
Notes et chroniques
- ASSAËL Jacqueline - La « nuit des promesses » comme matrice d’une poésie de la foi dans l’œuvre de Gérard Scripiec
- MÜLLER Denis - L’instrumentalisation de la philosophie et des valeurs chrétiennes par Vladimir Poutine
- ROLLAND Jean-Luc - « Le secret de la liberté » : Karl Barth auditeur libre de Mozart